"Republican majorities in the House and Senate have turned the process into an embarrassing spectacle, running from one crisis directly into the next", said Democratic Representative Nita Lowey prior to the House vote.
It comes on the eve of a deadline to avert another government shutdown.
But the bill still faces opposition from both Democrats and Republicans.
Shah said the White House will be releasing a budget on Monday.
Senate Democrats were expected to baulk at the Bill's inclusion of an increase in Pentagon funding but exclusion of any increase in non-defence spending. "We're trying to work with him to help get that done".
When faced with the question of whether to boost military or domestic spending, Capitol legislators have their answer. Stopgaps are needed when Congress fails to approve a full budget on time by that date.
Once known as the party of fiscal conservatives, the Republicans and Trump are now quickly expanding the US budget deficit and its $20 trillion national debt.
Those days are long gone. Both adjustments extended through the 2017 fiscal year and have expired. Now it seems likely spending will surge upward as well, despite the Trump administration's promises of an austere budget a year ago.
House Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi and others in her party had opposed the bill because Republican House leaders would not guarantee her a debate later on steps to protect about 700,000 "Dreamer" immigrants from deportation.
Schulz Abruptly Drops Bid to Be Merkel's Next Foreign Minister
If a deal emerges, it won't bring an immediate end to the political limbo following Germany's September 24 election. Many young and leftist members are against the renewed so-called Grand Coalition between the SPD and the Union.
But the bigger drama played out on the Senate side.
Why are some Democrats unhappy?
Other Republicans agreed with Paul, refusing to back the largest spending addition since the Obama Stimulus in 2009. Democrats intensified their efforts to communicate they would hold firm in an effort to pressure Republicans to offer a commitment for a floor vote on immigration.
However, it would not resolve the plight of immigrant "Dreamers" who face deportation after being brought to the US illegally as children.
"If you're against president [Barack] Obama's deficits, but you're for the Republican deficits, isn't that the very definition of hypocrisy?" he boomed, adding that he wants his fellow lawmakers "to feel uncomfortable" over the impasse. "I'm a hell no".
"The spending bill Congress is considering breaks just about every promise House Republicans have made over the last 8 years", said Rep. Raul Labrador (R-ID), who is leaving to run for Governor of Idaho.
In declining to declassify the document, the White House also sent lawmakers a letter signed by Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein and Wray, as well as a marked-up copy of the memo, laying out portions it considers too sensitive to make public.
Deficits are already projected to climb because of the Trump administration's $1.5tn tax cuts, which were approved by Congress in December. The Senate eventually approved the bill, followed by the House, after that shutdown technically started.
Democrats cancelled a retreat due to urgent nature of the bill, which does not contain any amendment to USA immigration law, the major issue that ultimately led to a shutdown last month, as a result of lawmakers failing to reach an agreement.